Awad, E., Dsouza, S., Kim, R., Schultz, J. Henrich, J., Shariff, A.F. Bonnefon, J.F. & Rahwan, I. (in press).

The Moral Machine Experiment.



Mercier, B.M., Kramer, S.R., & Shariff, A.F. (2018)

The Belief in God: Why People Believe and Why They Don’t.

Current Directions in Psychological Science.



Crandall, J.W., Oudah, M., Ishowo-Oloko, Abdallah, S., Bonnefon, J.F., Cebrian, M. Shariff, A.F., Goodrich, M.A. & Rahwan, I. (2018)

Cooperating with machines.

Nature Communications.



Shariff, A.F., Rahwan, I., & Bonnefon, J.F (2017)

Psychological roadblocks to the adoption of self-driving cars.

Nature Human Behavior.



Christian, C.B., & Shariff, A.F. (2017)

Asymmetry and empathy: Higher asymmetry is associated with lower levels of mentalizing.

Early Human Development.



Shariff, A.F. (2017)

Are Wrathful Gods the Killer App of Religion? Two Nits to Pick with Johnson’s God is Watching You.

Religion, Brain & Behavior.


 Willard, A.K. Shariff, A.F., & Norenzayan, A. (2016)

Religious Priming as a research tool for studying religion: Evidentiary Value, Current Issues, and Future Directions.

Current Opinion in Psychology.



 DeBono, A.E., Shariff, A.F., Poole, S. and Muraven, M. (2016)

Forgive Us Our Trespasses:
Priming a Forgiving (But Not a Punishing) God Increases Unethical Behavior.

Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.



Shariff, A.F., Willard, A.K., Murthukrishna, M., Kramer, S.R., & Henrich, J. (2016)

What is the association between religious affiliation and children’s altruism?

Current Biology.



Bonnefon, J.F, Shariff, A.F., & Rahwan, I. (2016)

The Social Dilemma of Autonomous Vehicles.




Shariff, A.F. Wiwad, D., & Aknin, L.B. (2016)

Income Mobility Breeds Tolerance for Income Inequality: Cross-national and Experimental Evidence.

Perspectives on Psychological Science.

full-textsupplemental materials


Kramer, S.R. & Shariff, A.F. (2016)

Religion, deception and self-deception [chapter]

Cheating, Corruption and Concealment



Norenzayan, A., Shariff, A.F., Gervais, W.M., Willard, A.K., McNamara, R., Slingerland, E., & Henrich, J. (2016).

The Cultural Evolution of Prosocial Religions

Behavioral and Brain Sciences [target article]


Shariff, A.F. & Norenzayan, A. (2015)

A Question of Reliability or of Boundary Conditions? Commentary on Gomes & McCullough

Journal of Experimental Psychology: General



Shariff, A.F. (2015).

Does Religion Increase Moral Behavior?

Current Opinion in Psychology



Rios, K., Cheng, Z.H., Trotton, R., & Shariff, A.F. (2015).

Negative Stereotypes cause Christians to Underperform In and Disidentify with Science

Social and Personality Psychology Science



Shariff, A.F., Willard, A.K., Andersen, T., &  Norenzayan, A., (2015).

Religious Priming: A Meta-analysis with a Focus on Prosociality

Personality and Social Psychology Review



*Shariff, A.F., *Piazza, J., & *Kramer, S.R. (2014).

Morality and the Religious Mind: Why Theists and Non-theists differ

Trends in Cognitive Sciences



Shariff, A.F., Greene, J.D., Karremans, J.C., Luguri, J., Clark, C. J., Schooler, J.W., Baumeister, R.F. & Vohs, K.D. (2014).

Free Will and Punishment: A Mechanistic View of Human Nature Reduces Retribution

Psychological Science


supplemental materials


Clark, C. J., Luguri, J., Ditto, P.H., Knobe, J., Shariff, A.F., & Baumeister, R.F. (2014).

Free to Punish:
 A Motivated Account of Free Will Belief.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology



Shariff, A.F., Purzycki, B.G., & Sosis, R. (2014).

Religions as Cultural Solutions to Social Living [chapter]

Culture Reexamined: Broadening Our Understanding of Social and Evolutionary Influences



Tsang, J., Rowatt, W.C., & Shariff, A.F. (2014).

Religion and Prosociality [chapter]

Oxford Handbook of Religion


Rahwan, I., Krasnoshtan, D., Shariff, A.F., & Bonnefon, J.F. (2014).

Analytical reasoning task reveals limits of social learning in networks.

Journal of the Royal Society Interface

pdfsupplemental materials


Shariff, A.F. & Aknin, L.B. (2014).

The Emotional Toll of Hell: Cross-national and experimental evidence for the negative well-being effects of Hell beliefs.

PLoS One



Tracy, J.L., Shariff, A.F., Zhao, W., & Henrich, J. (2013).

Cross-Cultural Evidence that the Nonverbal Expression of Pride is an Automatic Status Signal.

Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

pdfsupplemental materials


Shariff, A.F. & Rhemtulla, M. (2012).

Divergent effects of heaven and hell beliefs on national crime.

PLoS One



*Laurin, K., *Shariff, A.F., Kay, A.C., & Henrich, J. (2012).

Outsourcing punishment to god: Beliefs in divine control reduce earthly punishment.

Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.

pdfsupplemental materials


Shariff, A.F., Markusoff, J. & Tracy, J.L. (2012).

(Implicitly) Judging a Book by its Cover: The Unavoidable Inference of Status from Pride and Shame Expressions.

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.



Martens, J.P., Tracy, J.L. & Shariff, A.F. (2012).

Status signals: The social functions of the pride and shame expressions.

Cognition & Emotion



Markowitz, E.M. & Shariff, A.F. (2012).

Climate change and Moral Judgement: Psychological challenges and opportunities.

Nature Climate Change


Shariff, A.F. & Tracy, J.L. (2011).

Emotion Expressions: On signals, symbols and spandrels.

Current Directions in Psychological Science



Shariff, A.F. & Tracy, J.L. (2011).

What are Emotion Expressions for?

Current Directions in Psychological Science

pdfhi-res evolution of expressions chart


Gervais, W. M., Shariff, A.F. & Norenzayan, A. (2011).

Do You Believe in Atheists? Trust and anti-atheist prejudice.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology



Shariff, A.F. (2011).

Big Gods Were Made for Big Groups: Commentary on Schloss & Murray.

Religion, Brain and Behavior



Shariff, A.F., & Norenzayan, A. (2011).

Mean Gods Make Good People: Different views of God predict cheating behavior.

International Journal for Psychology of Religion

pdfviews of god scale

Shariff, A.F., Tracy, J.L, Cheng, J.T. & Henrich, J. (2010).

Further Thoughts on the Evolution of Pride’s Two Facets: A Response to Clark.

Emotion Review (author response to commentaries)


Shariff, A.F., Tracy, J.L, & Cheng, J.T. (2010).

Naturalism and the Tale of Two Facets.

Emotion Review (author response to commentaries)



Tracy, J.L, Shariff, A.F & Cheng, J.T. (2010).

A Naturalist’s View of Pride.

Emotion Review (target article)



Norenzayan, A., Shariff, A.F., & Gervais, W. (2010).

The Evolution of Religious Misbelief.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences


Shariff, A.F., & Tracy, J.L. (2009).

Knowing Who’s Boss: Implicit Perceptions of Status from the Nonverbal Expression of Pride.




Shariff, A.F., Norenzayan, A. & Henrich, J. (2009).

The Birth of High Gods: How the cultural evolution of supernatural policing agents influenced the emergence of complex, cooperative human societies, paving the way for civilization.

Evolution, Culture and the Human Mind. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (chapter)


Cohen, A. B, Shariff, A.F., & Hill, P.C. (2008)

The Accessibility of Religious Beliefs.

Journal of Research in Personality.



Norenzayan, A. & Shariff, A.F. (2008)

The Origin and Evolution of Religious Prosociality.




Shariff, A.F., Cohen, A.B., & Norenzayan, A. (2008)

The Devil’s Advocate: Secular Arguments Diminish both Implicit and Explicit Religious Belief.

Journal of Cognition and Culture



Shariff, A.F., Schooler, J.W. & Vohs, K.D. (2008).

The Hazards of Claiming to Have Solved the Hard Problem of Free Will.

Psychology and Free Will. Oxford University Press. (chapter)



Shariff, A.F. (2008).

One Species under God? Sorting through the pieces of religion and cooperation.

The Evolution of Religion: Studies, Theories, and Critique. Collins Foundation Press. (chapter)



Cohen, A.B., Hill, P.C., Shariff, A.F., & Rozin, P. (2008).

Furthering the Evolution of Discussion on Religion: Multi-Method Study, Universality, and Cultural Variation.

The Evolution of Religion: Studies, Theories, and Critique. Collins Foundation Press. (chapter)


Shariff, A.F., & Norenzayan, A. (2007).

God is watching you: Supernatural agent concepts increase prosocial behavior in an anonymous economic game.

Psychological Science



Shariff, A.F. & Peterson, J.B. (2005).

Anticipatory Consciousness, Libet’s Veto and a Close Enough Theory of Free Will.

Consciousness and Emotion